Day 1 :
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Katherine Kiwimagi has completed her PhD in Biomedical Engineering at Colorado State University and is currently working on Postdoctoral studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the Department of Bioengineering. Her published work is focused on the interplay of in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies where, she has developed both experimental and computational tools with applications in many biological systems. Her current work focuses on cell-cell communication tools for mammalian systems with the application of creating spatio-temporal patterns to directed organoid differentiation.
Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into organoids has been achieved via a plethora of modalities. One of the more common techniques includes developing multi-day culture strategies where morphogenesis and growth factors are added and removed to achieve different differentiation paradigms. This is limited by diffusion and penetration of these small molecules, as well as a uniform application of the signals. Although recent studies involving microfluidics and substrate patterning have achieved a degree of spatial resolution, engineering synthetic genetic programs to be executed within and across cells, promises more and enables spatiotemporal control of cellular differentiation. We have shown that these heterogeneous differentiation programs can yield production of all three germ layers which results in liver like and vascularized organoids. This work hopes to expand on what we have already shown with the development and application of a synthetic cell-cell communication tool box to employ heterogeneous differentiation programs to further organoid development. Synthetic cell-cell communication tools enhance and extend the design of multi-cellular frameworks for tissue construction and differentiation. It is these organotypic like structures, often called organoids that are making their way to the forefront in the development of personalized medicine. One way to program the needed differentiation for organoid maturation is to design multi-cellular circuits. In order to design these circuits capable of coordinated patterns formation one needs tools for cell-cell communication. These cell-cell communication systems are the tools we will need to engineer a better world. This work aims to construct cell-cell communication tools for the construction of programmable spatiotemporal patterns in mammalian cells. This includes the first mammalian synthetic circuit capable of producing its own diffusible signaling molecule that is orthogonal to the endogenous system. Implementation of heterogeneous differentiation programs has allowed for vascularization and development of iPCs derived organoids.
Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Keynote: Reconstructionof urinary organs using tissue engineering constructs with mesenchymal stem cells
Time : 10:40-11:20
Natalia Yudintceva works in the field of the Regenerative Medicine. She studies the possibilities of using tissue-engineering grafts based on polymeric scaffolds and stem cells to restore the structural integrity of the tissues of the genitourinary system (urine bladder, urethra) on experimental models, including on models of the tuberculous bladder. Another direction of her investigations is a development of the polymeric small diameter vessels for cardiac surgery
In recent years the interest of urologists to use the methods of tissue engineering in the treatment of pathologies of the urinary tract has increased. This refers to diseases in which organ substitution is required, and the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and various tissues of the body are used as substitutes. The disadvantages of this approach are postoperative complications, a shortage of tissues for plastics, and an increase in the time of surgery due to the need for a patient's flap. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of the tissue engineering graft (TEG) application for the repair of damaged urine bladder (UB) tissue and urethra. TEGs based on bilayer polymer scaffolds seeded with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of rabbit bone marrow were prepared for the reconstruction of UB and urethra. To specifically track the used cells in vivo, the latter were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). TEGs were implanted on the model of partial resection of the UB and defect of the dorsal surface of the urethra of rabbits. Evaluation of the results of the TEGs application and cell therapy was performed following 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the operation. After animal sacrifice, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed and tissue cryosections were prepared. The nanoparticle-labeled cells were detected in various layers of reconstructed tissues that convincingly demonstrate their active participation in the reconstruction process. The developed TEGs with allogenic MSCs facilitated to the effective reparation of damaged tissues of UB and urethra, which is especially important for treatment of pathologies without a possibility of using autologous tissue.